Timeline of Muhammad’s Life

This is a work in progress.

This timeline is built from the conventional Islamic dating of Muhammad’s life.  While conventional Islamic dating is not completely coherent with historical records, they’re close enough to work with in most respects, as long as earlier traditions are deemed to be more authentic than those with late dates.

Some of these dates are firm.  Others are guesses that are nevertheless harmonized with the chronology of the sources.  The purpose for creating this timeline is twofold.  First, anyone studying Islam will benefit from a functional chronology because the sources are so stubbornly disorganized.  Second, I need a way of organizing the massive amount of information contained in the hadith collections, the sirat, and the Quran into a coherent narrative for my own purposes.  I will try to notate my sources or reasoning for my dating decisions.

Note that some sahih ahadith are mutually exclusive or simply impossible, and putting Muhammad’s life into a chronology forces out some of these conflicts.  I discard impossibilities, even when they force conclusions that are not often recognized or go against treasured Islamic folk traditions. I place the Quran above the ahadith in supremacy. Ahadith that are transparently self-serving are less authoritative than those that are not.

I choose to render female names without the optional final “h” and male names with it just to make it easier for English speakers to track various people.  I also use alternative renderings of the same name to distinguish between different people for the same reason.  There is no significance to this. Sometimes I’ll spell the same name in two different but equally correct renderings. That’s accidental. I am trying to use the more “obtuse” but transparent spellings, like separating out “abd” in a name to make its meaning more clear.

The revelation order of the Quran is not secure.  Early Islamic scholars did not have a literate history or deal with the Quran in the way that their neighbors would, so the circumstances of many of the hadith are quite unclear.  My order is as consistent with traditional Egyptian chronology as much as it is possible to harmonize tradition, biographies, ahadith, and Quran.

Muhammad’s Life

530-545–Digging of the Zamzam well, which allowed year-round occupation of the site near the Kaaba.

552–The Year of the Elephant.  Many Muslims have been told that the early Islamic sources claim that Muhammad was born during the Year of the Elephant, but early Islamic sources are actually extremely unclear about when the Year of the Elephant was, and dates for Muhammad’s birth range from the Day of the Elephant to 70 years after the Year of the Elephant.  Fortunately, we have an inscription that clarifies the matter.

569—Abd al-Muttalib arranges for his son Adb’Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib of the Hashim clan to marry Amina bint Wahb. He brings with him into his marriage Barakah (later Umm Ayman), an Ethiopian slave, a gift from his father.

October 569—Muhammad’s father dies while his mother is pregnant (according to most sources, other dates possible). Baraka (Umm Ayman) is inherited by Amina.

March 570—Muhammad born in Mecca to Amina.  He is suckled by Thuwaybah, the slave of his paternal uncle Abu Lahab.  He is born either on a Friday or a Monday, depending on which tradition is followed.

570—Halima al-Sa‘diyah nurses Muhammad in the desert.

572–The Sassanids conquer Yemen.  They take control of Sana’a and Aden and let the rest of the cities devolve to tribal rule under Sassanid hegemony.

575 (or 570)–The final breach of the Great Ma’rib Dam, which had previously irrigated up to 25,000 of fertile acres, causes up to 50,000 refugees.  It will not be rebuilt until 1980.

575—Muhammad is back with his mother Amina, and she and Baraka (Umm Ayman) take him to Yathrib/Medina either to visit her relatives or to see Abd’Allah’s grave or both. From here, they either return to Mecca or go to Abwa’.

577—Muhammad’s mother Amina dies in Abwa’, where she is buried. Muhammad’s grandfather Abd al-Muttalib becomes his guardian. Muhammad inherits Baraka (Umm Ayman).

578—Muhammad’s grandfather Abd al-Muttalib dies and guardianship is transferred to his uncle Abu Talib, who also becomes the head of the Hashim clan and the siqaya and rifada of Mecca.

584 or bef.—Khadija marries Atiq bin A’idh of Banu Makhzum.

585—Khadija has daughter Hind, giving her the kunya Umm Hind.

586—Khadija’s son Abd’Allah is born, dies in infancy.

587—Khadija’s husband Atiq dies.

588—Khadija is married to Malak “Abu Halah” ibn An-Nabbash, a Bedouin nobleman of Tamim tribe—he and his brothers had immigrated to Mecca and formed alliance with Abduldar clan of the Quraysh, and then he contracted marriage with Khadiya from the rival Abad clan.

589—Khadija’s son Halah is born.

591—Khadija’s son Hind is born. Survives to adulthood and converted after conquest of Mecca.

591-594–The Sacrilegious War.

593—Khadija’s daughter Zainab is born, but dies in infancy.

594—Khadija’s husband Malik dies, likely in the Sacreligious War against the Quays-Aylan tribe (691-694). Khadijah’s father refuses all proposals of marriage.

594—Zaid ibn Haritha of Udhra tribe is bought by Khadijah’s nephew at a slave market for 400 dirhams after being captured by slave traders and presented to her as a present. Perhaps the nephew wanted to marry Hind.

594—Jafar ibn Abu Talib’s birth. (Note: This differs from Islamic tradition.)

596—Khadija’s daughter Hind married off to Sayfi ibn Umayyah.

596—❤️ Khadija proposes to Muhammad through her maid and tricks her father in to letting them marry.  Muhammad frees Baraka (Umm Ayman). Baraka then marries and has her son, Ayman.

597—Muhammad and Khadija’s son al-Qasim born, but dies before weaning.

598— Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Zainab born.

March 17, 599—Muhammad’s uncle Abu Talib and aunt by marriage Fatimah bint Asad have child Ali ibn Abu Talib.

601/2—Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Ruqayya born.

602–Phocas assassinated the Emperor Maurice and his family and seizes the throne of Byzantium.  Equal shares incompetent and brutal, he had such a poor grasp of statesmanship that his accession immediately inspired multiple raids and a Sassanid invasion, led by Korsrau II, who swiftly takes over Mesopotamia and the Caucasus.

603— Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Umm Kulthum born.

605— Kaaba rebuilt. Muhammad and Khadija’s daughter Fatima born. (Traditional Sunni date; Shia date not possible.)

606—Ali ibn Abu Talib comes to live with Muhammad and Khadija because father has become poor after a severe drought. Uncle Al-Abbas does the same with Jafar. Abu Talib’s favorite son Aqil stays with his father.

Zainab’s marriage to Abu al-As ibn al-Rabiah.

Ruqayya marriage to her cousin Utbah ibn Abu Lahab.

Umm Kulthum’s marriage to her cousin Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab.

(All three are married before 610.)

ca. 609—Adoption of Zaid by Muhammad. Must be when there is no surviving son and no real hope for a son left.

Khadijah’s son Halah killed in a street brawl over Muhammad’s reputation before the first revelation. We don’t know when this happens, but I place it as being after Zayd’s adoption, the subject being Muhammad’s inability to have a male heir.

Sacrifice to pantheon in “high places”—meets monotheist coming back, begins to consider monotheism.

610–The Byzantine general Heraclius overthrows Phocus and must consolidate power before turning back the Sassanids.

10 Aug 610—Mohammed has vision at the cave of Hira, where he goes to have religious experiences, and ? Surah 96:1-5 is revealed. Muhammad is terrified and fears he is going mad.

Khadija consults with her heretical mystic “Nazarene” cousin Waraqah, who deduces that he encountered the monotheists’ God, what Arab Jews and Christians called Allah, that is, Yahweh, through an intermediary angel. But Muhammad doesn’t yet know the name Allah and won’t for quite some time, so it’s likely that even Waraqah didn’t know or use this name.

Coming back from the cave again, Muhammad has a Throne Vision and then ? Surah 74:1-5 is revealed. He consults with Waraqah personally, which reassures him.

Muhammad’s first Companions were converted over the following weeks, and he has his first conflicts with Abu Lahab.  Despite later tradition, neither ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan nor “Abu Bakr” Abd’Allah ibn ‘Uthman were among these.  Most of the earliest believers were the women among Muhammad’s family, some young men, and some slaves.

Other surat of this time:

Probably at this time, which is when the conflict with Abu Lahab got really nasty, with a revelation that called Abu Lahab’s mother unfaithful and Abu Lahab a bastard, Zainab, Ruqayya, and Umm Kulthum were removed from Muhammad and Khadija’s house by their husbands Abu al-As, Utbah, and Utaybah, if they were not before.

Late 610 (est.)—Muhammad and Khadija’s son Abd’Allah born. Died 615 or before. Since Abd’Allah isn’t mentioned in any ahadith other than his mere existence, and since everything about him is confused, I think he died very soon after his birth.  I think this put Muhammad under even more stress than Waraqah’s death.

611—Abu Bakr converts after returning from the winter caravan to Yemen and learning the Muhammad had declared himself the Messenger of God.  This happens before the end of Surah 89 is revealed, as this is the first time Abu Bakr is mentioned in relation to being present at any revelation.

Waraqah dies, and the revelations cease.  Muhammad tries repeatedly to commit suicide because of the stress of this, according to the ahadith, but I think there’s another cause–that is, the death of Abd’Allah.

Spring of 611, revelation returns:

611, after summer caravan:

  • ? Surah 112
  • ? Surah 53

611–The Sassanids overrun Syria and take important cities in Anatolia.

A few more guideposts:

612, after summer caravan:

  • ? Surah 75  (Changes ideas on embryology and finds out about the Resurrection)
  • ? Surah 74

Surah 74 occurs right after Ramadan 612.  Muhammad is convinced that the end is nigh, and he and his followers just weren’t devout enough before Ramadan 612 for it to happen.  So he and his followers need to spend their nights standing and praying.  If they do that, then the Great Day will come

613, after winter caravan:

  • ? Surah 54

613, after summer caravan

  • ? Surah 7 (Name of Allah used for the first time)
  • ? Surah 72
  • ? Surah 36
  • ? Surah 25
  • ? Surah 35
  • ? Surah 19
  • ? Surah 20

Muhammad thinks that he now has the full revelation to lead the Arabs into monotheism.

613, after Ramadan–The prophecy fails.  No Great Day. Surah 74 is abrogated.  Muhammad is convinced this is because the rest of the Quraysh have rejected him and begins proselytizing aggressively, causing serious problems with the pagans.

  • ? Surah 26
  • ? Surah 111

The Quraysh tribe is extremely annoyed by Muhammad. They attempt to get Abu Talib to stop supporting him by offering him the most beautiful young male slave. They successfully get Ubtah and Utaybah to repudiate their wives Ruqayya and Umm Kulthum. Abu al-As refuses to repudiate his wife Zainab. 

Part of ? Surah 53 (chron. 23) The Star was probably delivered at this time.

Gives the rest of ?  Surah 96.

614—Ruqayya married to Uthman ibn Affan.

614—Muhammad describes paradise in Surah 38.

614—Aisha daughter of Abu Bakr born.

615—Migration to Abyssinia by many of the early Muslims, including Ruqayya and Uthman.

616—Muhammad’s followers must leave Mecca for camp outside of walls. Zainib stays in Mecca.

616—More people migrate to Abyssinia. (This is how I solve the “double migration” problem.)

After migration 616—Umar converts to Islam.

Early 617—Zainab and Abu al-As have son Ali, who dies in infancy.

618–The Sassanids take Egypt.  The Sassanid king sends Heraclius a sneering letter, calling himself a god and Christ “powerless.”  This did not go over well.

619—Some people in Abyssinia return to Mecca.

619—Ruqayya has son Abd’Allah in Abyssinia.

619—Muhammad’s uncle Abu Talib dies.

22 April 620—Khadija, ill at the time of the return to Mecca, finally dies. Muhammad declares that she will meet her fellow wives in paradise (Mary, pharoah’s “wife” who rescued Moses, Khadijah, and some other. Later, Fatima replaced the last.)

Satanic Versus incident—?Surah 53.

May 620—Muhammad marries 1❤️ Sawdah bint Zam’a, age 35, a well-off widow and tanner/perfume mixer, and contracts marriage with 2❤️ Aisha, age 6.

“Night Journey”—The Meccans had been attacking Muhammad, saying that he has no miracles to show for his prophet status.

621–The whole of the province of Palestine falls into the hands of the Persians, who find allies among the Jews.  Together, they destroy many Christian churches and holy sites.

5 April 622–Byzantine emperor Heraclius leaves Constantinople to face the Sassanids.  The war turns against the Sassanids, and the Byzantines defeat the Sassanids in a series of battles from 622 until 628.

622—Hijra. Some of the Abyssinians, like Ruqayya and Uthman, return in time for the hijra to Medina. Zainab and Abu al-As stay behind in Mecca. Expenses paid by Abu Bakr.

622—Zainab has daughter Umamah with Abu al-As.

Umm Kulthum and Fatimah are sent for in Medina by Muhammad. Al-Abbas putt them on a camel, and Huwayrith ibn Nuqaydh goaded it so they were thrown.

11 April to 9 May 623—Muhammad consummates marriage with Aisha, age 9.

623—Fatima married to Ali ibn Abu Talib. They live in great poverty.

March 623—Hamzah ibn Abd al-Muttalib leads the ⚔️ al-Is caravan raid—meets the enemy Abu Jahl Amr ibn Hasham but doesn’t engage because Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervenes.

April 623—⚔️ Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith—might have actually been first “First arrow of Islam”

May 623—⚔️ Kharrar raid, led by Sad ibn Abi Waqqas. Set up for an ambush after the caravan had already made it through.

August 623—⚔️ Expedition of Waddan. 4th caravan raid, first that Muhammad takes part in personally—no fighting, makes treaty with clan Damrah

October 623—⚔️ Patrol of Buwat 5th raid, found nothing

December 623—⚔️ Expedition of al-Ashirah or Patrol of Zul Al-Ushairah 6th raid

623—First expedition to Badr/⚔️ Battle of Safwan

4 March 624—Fatima’s first son Al-Hasan born.

January 624—⚔️ Nakhla raid—seventh caravan raid, first successful one against the Meccans

Jan 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Asma bint Marwan

624—Muhammad evicts Qaynuqa Jews from Medina. ?Surah 63

Feb 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Afak

March 624—⚔️ Battle of Badr (victory); Zainab’s husband Abu al-As is captured, and Zainab offers a necklace as ransom. Muhammad IDs it and agrees to trade Abu al-As for Zainab instead of the ransom. He sends ? to pick her (and daughter Umamah) up—the losers feel disrespected and assault her, throwing her from her camel and causing her to have a misacarriage. Servant agrees to come back later and take her more sub rosa. Hafsa’s first husband Khunays ibn Hudayfa dies of battle wounds later. Very wealthy, and one of only 4 Muslim women able to write. Zainab bint Khuzayma’s husband Ubaydah ibn al-Harith becomes first Muslim to die in battle.

Uthman missed the battle because Ruqayya is dying. (Shia sources say he beat her to death.) She then dies after the battle. At her funeral, the women wail, and Umar, Hafsa’s father, beats them with a whip, but Muhammad stops him.

Mar 624–Muhammad orders the execution of ?️al Nadr ibn al-Harith and ?️Uqbah ibn Abu Muayt.

Sept 624—Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Ka’b al-Ashraf

Oct 624—Muhammad orders Umm Kulthum married to Uthman

Dec 624–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi al-Huqaiq.

Jan/Feb 625—Muhammad marries 3❤️ Hafsa, Umar’s daughter, who is 19

Fatima begs for a slave girl to make her work easier

18 Feb 625—Muhammad marries 4❤️ Zainab bint Khuzayma Umm al-Masakin “Mother of the Poor”, age 28, another widow of Badr

625–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Khalid ibn Sufyan

Mar 625–Muhammad orders execution of ?️Abu ‘Azzah ‘Amr ibn Abd Allah al-Jumahi.

Mar 625–Muhammad orders execution of ?️Muawiyah ibn al-Mugheerah.

625—⚔️Battle of Uhud (defeat), and Abd’Allah ibn Abdulasad is killed, widowing Hind (Umm Salama)

Sawda gives her place to Aisha out of fear of being divorced.

625—Umm Kulthum protects cousin fugitive from Battle of Uhud; he is granted 3 days protection, but Muhammad sends men after him and they kill him

625—Ruqayya’s child Abd-Allah dies in Medina

625—Muhammad evicts Nadir Jews

626–The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius allies with the Gokturks of the Western Turkic Khaganate against the Sassanids.

6 April 626—Muhammad marries 5❤️ Hind (Umm Salama) bint Suhail, age 28. She was proposed to first by Abu Bakr (18 Mar 626), then Umar, and finally Muhammad. She refused them all, but Muhammad bullied her into marriage.

10 Jan 626—Fatima has son Al-Husayn

October 2, 626—Fatima has daughter Zaynab

I think Fatima married to Ibn Abbas dies this year, too?

Jan/Feb 627—Muhammad orders ⚔️Battle of the Trench (victory)

?Ghaziya (Umm Sharik) bint Jabir was a poor widow with children.  She sent a proposal of marriage, and he signed it, but when he saw her in person, he thought she was too old, though attractive, and divorced her immediately. She never remarried.

Feb/Mar 627—Muhammad orders massacre of the Qurayza Jews (⚔️Invasion of the Banu Qurayza) in the aftermath of the Battle of the Trench and takes Rayhanah bint Zaid (slave “of the right hand”) and ? Tukanah al-Quraziya. It’s unknown when he starts sleeping with Tukanah.  She doesn’t get her own turn/house, so she probably is given to another wife to be in her household.  She marries al-Abbas after Muhammad dies.

Muhammad starts sleeping with ? Rayhanah bint Zaid, who was widowed in the massacre of the Qurayza Jews. She won’t convert and marry him, so he keeps her as his rape slave. Some stories like to make her convert before her death, but all the stories of her conversion are fluffy and inconsistent with one another.  She may have gotten her own house or not.

Muhammad delivers ? Surah 33 so he can marry Zainab.

27 Mar 627—Muhammad marries 6❤️ Zainab bint Jahsh, age 37, who was first married to Zaid.

Declares that his wives must wrap up in veils right after this, also in Surah 33.

627–Muhammad orders assassination of ?️Abu Sufyan. (May be before or after the massacre of the Qurayza Jews.)

Uncle of ?Khawla bint Hudhayi of the Christian Taghlib tribe arranges for her to marry Muhammad (likely due to his conflict with the Jews). Muhammad signed the contract, but she died on the way.  They sought to substitute her aunt ? Sharaf bint Khalifa, but either Muhammad changed his mind or Sharaf also died before consummation.

Oct 627—Zainab bint Muhammad’s husband Abu al-As’s Meccan caravan is ⚔️attacked and captured by Muslim raiders. He flees to her in Medina and begs for protection in return for converting. He then goes to Mecca with caravan goods to pay back the Meccans and then returns in May/June 628.

19 Dec-16 Jan 628—⚔️ attack the Mustaliq branch of the Khuza’a tribe/raid at al-Muraysi—Aisha gets lost, and her virtue is called into question by Hamna sister of Zainab bint Jahsh—Ali is against her, too.

2 Jan 628—Muhammad marries 7❤️ Juwayriuah bint al-Harith, age 20, taken in the raid. He also sends to Ramla, widowed in Abyssinia, to propose marriage as soon as her 130-day waiting period is up. They trick the king into giving her a huge dower, and she leaves to marry him.

628–The Byzantine campaign against the Sassanids is so successful that an internal coup launched by Khosrow II’s son, Kavad II, overthrows the shah.  On their way across Persia, the Byzantine army took time to exact revenge for the destruction of Christian holy sites by obliterating the site of one of the three most sacred fires of Zoroastrianism at Adur Gushnasp.

? Surah 24 is delivered in Aisha’s defense, and there’s more about veils, too.

Zaynab bint Jahsh offers her slave ?al-Jariya to Muhammad as a concubine. I’m locating this here because using her as a peace offering trying to reconcile with Muhammad after smearing Aisha makes sense.

628—Muhammad signs of Treaty of Hudaibiya with Mecca

Mid-July 628—⚔️Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad causes the destruction and subjugation of Khaybar Jews, and Safiyah is widowed (husband murdered personally by Muhammad after truce) and captured—Khaybar provides wealth for the rest of Muhammad’s life—Safiyah bint Huleiy ibn Akhtab 8❤️ resists him first night, is taken by Umm Salama to be dressed up for marriage, to which he submits the next day– Safiyah, age 17 (month of birth)

Muhammad is poisoned after Khaybar by a Jewish woman.

Baraka (Umm Ayman) becomes widowed at Khaybar and marries Zaid ibn Haritha.

Dubaa bint Amir was a wealthy noblewoman whose hair was said to “fill a whole room” when she say down. Muhammad proposed, but then he was advised that she was elderly, as her adult son was from her third marriage, so he changed his mind before they met.

Summer 628–Marya the Copt arrives with sister and cousin and is given to Hafsa.  Muhammad believed that the Christian governor of Egypt sent him these slaves and was acknowledging him in some way because he had no idea that Egypt was under Sassanian control.

The last of the Abyssinians rejoin them, including Asma who will marry Abu Bakr

?Layla bint al-Khutaym proposes to Muhammad to promote the interests of her clan Jafar and he accepts, but her family convinces her that she would not adapt well to the marriage.

628— Muhammad marries 9❤️ Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (Umm Habiba), age 35

628– Zainab bint Khuzayma dies

629–The Sassanid general Shahrbaraz made an agreement with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to return control of Egypt to the Byzantines.

18 Feb 629—Muhammed marries 9❤️ Maymunah bint al-Harith.

May/Jun 629—Zainab bint Muhammad dies

July 629—Muhammad has sex with ? Maryah the Copt on Hafsa’s bed.

Sept 629—Muhammad orders first raid into Christian lands (defeat),⚔️ battle of Mu’tah—Asma’s husband died, and she marries Abu Bakr

Late 629— ? Surah 60.  Traditionally between 33 and 24, but the traditional circumstances of the revelation (Bukhari 65:4890) push it to right before the conquest of Mecca.  Shia tradition concurs with this and adds details about the woman messenger.

Early Jan 630— Muhammad conquers Mecca by surprise, then Muhammad orders ⚔️Battle of Hunayn.

Late Jan 630— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Mulayka bint Kaab, younger than Aisha at the time (who was 16), immediately divorced because Aisha got her to resist him because he killed her father—she was given after the Battle of Hunayn by the people of Mecca to appease Muhammad.

Gave Surah 4 (The women, chron. 92) telling his followers to rape married women.

630—Muhammad marries and then immediately divorces 10❤️ Fatima (al-Aliya) bint Zabyan (al-Dahhak), who was thrown out and spent the rest of her life drying camel dung and selling it for fuel.   Aisha may get her divorced by claiming she’s peeking at men in the mosque.

25 Mar-22 April 630—Ibrahim is born from Marya the Copt and Zainab, Muhammad’s daughter, dies

Remarks upon seeing Umm Habib bint al-Abbas crawling around that “If I am alive when she grows up, I will marry her.” Then he found out that he was a milk-brother with al-Abbas and changed his mind.

April 630–The father of ?Sana bint Rifaa arranges a marriage between her and Muhammad, but she dies.  He then arranges for Muhammad to marry his daughter ?Umra bint Rifaa instead, but when he said she’d never been sick a day in her life, Muhammad decides to break off the engagement.

8 Jul 630—Fatima has daughter Umm Kulthum

Jun or Jul 630— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Asma bint al-Numan, older than Aisha but no more than 20.  She was a Himaryite princess of Saba/Yemen.  It is said that Aisha tricked her into reciting the divorce formula before consummation so she was immediately divorced–slightly odd story.

Abu al-As remarries Fakhita & has daughter Maryam

630—Leads second raid into Christian territory and Tabuk (no battle)

Nov/Dec 930—Umm Kulthum dies

631—Remaining Arab tribes accept Islam

?Jamra bint al-Harith proposes marriage to Muhammad and he accepts.  Her father tells him she has a disease to get him to break off the engagement, which is successful.  Discovering the deception, Muslims insist that Allah really has struck her with a disease.

Late 631—Ibraham dies at 17/18 months old; 10❤️ al-Shanba bint Amir marries Muhammad, but he divorces her before consummation when she says that if he was a prophet, his son wouldn’t have died

631 or 632— Muhammed marries 10❤️ Amra bint Yazid, about 15, divorced girl of around Aisha’s age; divorced that day because of leprosy according to one tradition, but she sought refuge from in Allah according to another source.

May 632–Muhammad contracts marriage with Asma bint al-Numan’s cousin, ? Qutayla or Habla bint Qays, but dies before she arrives.  As soon as she hears that he’s dead, she apostates from Islam and marries an Arab leader who was a general in the Apostasy Wars.

8 Jun 632—Muhammad dies

Asma of Abu Bakr bears son

632—Fatima is denied her inheritance by Abu Bakr; she then dies miscarrying—according to Shia sources, this happens when Umar’s men force door open and break her ribs when she and Ali won’t recognize Abu Bakr’s election as caliph.


  2. asd