- By the assaulting ones, panting,
- And those who throw up [dust] behind them,
- And the dawn raiders
- Then raise the dust thereby,
- And together leaving thereby.
- Indeed, man is surely ungrateful* to his Lord,
- And indeed, he is surely a witness to that!
- And indeed, in the love of wealth he is surely severe!
- But does he not know when what is in the graves is overturned,*
- And what is in the breasts is manifest*–
- Indeed, on that Day, their Lord is surely informed!
2. Yes, it’s missing any reference to what is being thrown up behind the horses. The Tasfir of ibn al-Kathir thinks this is sparks, but this makes no sense in context–the Arabs wouldn’t have used horseshoes yet. Horseshoes are necessary for sparks. And anyway, these are almost certainly camels in context, not horses!
3. Raiders or changers.
7-11. Yes, the grammar of this is especially a mess. What I’ve written actually fixes it somewhat, I believe beyond the bounds of what is fully justifiable in the text, in fact.
This is put as an early surah by the Egyptian chronology, but this makes no sense. All the tasfir collections and ahadith attach it to a specific raid in Medina. The context is also obviously that or a violent raid.